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Quarterly Human Rights Report by the Defenders of Human Rights Centre

Spring and Summer 1388 (2009)


Sun 6 12 2009

According to the website of the Centre, the following reports criticize the current human rights situation in the country, particularly the clashes between the government and the civil society following the recent post-election protests. It is based on this report that the DHRC has demanded from the officials to uphold the civil and political rights of Iranian citizens, including their right to freedom of expression and association. The need for the officials of the judiciary and the security forces to observe just and legal measures as well as the need for immediate release of political and ideological prisoners are among other demands of the Centre as outlined in the following reports published in Mehr 1388.2

Quarterly Human Rights Report by the Defenders of Human Rights Centre

Spring and Summer 1388

Introduction

According to one of the three primary aims of the Centre, that of “regular and continuous reporting on human rights violations in Iran,” the Defenders of Human Rights Centre presents its report on both Spring and Summer of 1388 at this mid year point. This report is published at a time when civil and political rights activists and defenders are facing the most severe restrictions yet. These are days when political and civil activists are arrested en masse and articles of international conventions are violated in their entirety. During this same period, the Centre has also been subjected to more pressure in order to restrict its activities. The arrest of Mohammad Ali Dadkhah and Abdolfattah Soltani, two members of the DHRC Board of Directors; and Abdolreza Tajik, the Chief Publishing Officer of the Centre; as well as the indictment of Narges Mohammadi, the Assistant Director of the Centre; the travel ban against members of the Board of Directors, Seyyed Mohammad Seyfzadeh and Hadi Esmailzadeh; as well as other members of the Centre are among the limitations imposed by the authorities on this NGO following its forced closure.

However, regardless of the many obstacles it faces, in light of the fact that human rights is not limited to the government but that its promotion and preservation is dependent on public information and education, as a grass roots organization the DHRC presents this report in two sections.

The first section of the following is dedicated to the events surrounding the tenth presidential elections and the second section, as with previous reports, addresses various aspects of human rights in Iran.

Section I: The Tenth Presidential Elections

The ambiguities surrounding the tenth presidential elections in Iran resulted in objections by political and civil rights activists. These objections escalated only after Mahmoud Ahmadinejad was announced as the president-elect by winning 24 million and five hundred thousand votes from a total of 39 million cast ballots. This announcement met with strong reactions by Mir Hossain Moussavi and Mehdi Karroubi, two other running presidential candidates.

Mir Hossein Moussavi announced: “the results of the tenth presidential elections is surprising. Those who stood in long lines and witnessed the configuration of the ballots know who was voted for. They watch with wonder the tricks that those in charge of the election and the media are playing on them. Now more than ever before, they want to know who has planned this great game. I too strongly object to the methods and apparent violations during the elections and warn that I will not give in to this dangerous façade.” Mehdi Karroubi also objected to the manner in which the votes were counted and announced that in response to such mismanagement, he too will not remain silent.

Along with the objections of the two presidential candidates, Moussavi and Karroubi, to the results of the elections, a large number of Iranian citizens including political and civil rights activists among students, human rights defenders, journalists, women and trade unions faced arrest or violation of their right to freedom of expression and association.

1. Demands by the Protestors Regarding the Election Results

1. According to Article 27 of the Constitution of the Islamic republic of Iran “Public gatherings and marches may be freely held, provided arms are not carried and that they are not detrimental to the fundamental principles of Islam.” Although this Article clearly states the law, the events following the results of the presidential elections demonstrated that this Article is ignored. For instance, Morteza Tamaddon, the Governor of Tehran, in response to Moussavi’s call for peaceful demonstrations from Revolution Square to Freedom Square in Tehran at 4:00 pm on 24 Khordad 1388, announced that this was an “Illegal act without necessary permits and that the Ministry of the Interior has not agreed to this gathering.” Nevertheless, a peaceful demonstration composed of three million civilians and the two presidential candidates, Moussavi and Karroubi, took place. Other peaceful demonstrations by supporters of Moussavi and Karroubi who began to identify themselves as the Green Movement took place throughout the city, where a number of civilians were shot to death.
2. During a telephone announcement, Mir Hossein Moussavi stated: “In light of public concern, I wish to clarify that my family and I are well. Despite severe pressures by the officials to force the acceptance of the fictitious results of the elections, I have appealed to the Ministry of the Interior in order to protect their rights, and demanded that they revoke the election results and protect the true choice of the people. I am now under surveillance and unable to contact any member of the public or be present among them in any gathering. Furthermore, my headquarters has been shut down and members of the reformist Mosharekat Party have been detained.”
3. In a letter to the Guardian Council, Mehdi Karroubi wrote: “I expect the respected Council that in order to protect the exalted position accorded to it by the constitution, it would annul the results of an election which fraud and irregularities are obvious to all.”



2. Events Following the Tenth Presidential Elections
1. Security forces blocked the building of the Ministry of the Interior on Saturday 23 Khordad 1388.
2. At 7 a.m. on Saturday 23 Khordad 1388 the election headquarters of Mir Hossein Moussavi and Karroubi were attacked.
3. On the 23 and 24 of Khordad universities throughout Tehran were closed down.
4. The Tehran Friday Prayer on 26 Tir 1388 lead by Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, the Head of the Assembly of Experts, ended in firing shots of tear gas at the participants. Security forces in plainclothes insulted Abdollah Nouri and Mehdi Karroubi.
5. In light of Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani’s statements at the Tehran Friday Prayer regarding the post-election events and his criticism of Ahmadinejad supporters, he could no longer lead the prayers as previously arranged.
6. Major General Mohammad Ali Jafari, the Commander of the Islamic Revolutionary Guards said: “Spreading doubt about the election was based on orders planned by foreign anti-revolutionary espionage lobbies and delivered by a group inside the country.”
7. During the attacks on demonstrators, many citizens were injured and hospitalized. A number of individuals in civilian clothes entered the hospitals and clinics and acted in an immoral manner.
8. In a letter to the National Security Council, Mir Hossein Moussavi referred to the above and wrote: “Over the past few days, parallel to security forces, individuals in plainclothes who seem to lack proper identification or authorization and are mostly armed with cold weapons (hose, mace, chain, rod iron, etc.) or at times hot weapons, are repeatedly seen around the city. They attack the demonstrators ahead of the security forces, and while threatening the masses, engage in the destruction of vehicles and properties. I wish to remind the Council, the very fact that the authorities in charge of public safety and order employ the use of plainclothes forces goes to show that they are fully aware of the contradictory nature of their actions in light of their legal obligations and are not willing to allow these shameful acts to be associated with their uniforms. Freedom, order and security are among the fundamental rights of citizens, all of which in recent days have been violated by plainclothes forces.”
9. Ministry of the Interior opposed the plans to observe the 40th Day commemoration of the victims of the post-election unrest. Consequently, Iranian Police forces attacked the mourners around Tehran Mosala and Behesht-e Zahra Cemetery. They surrounded Mehdi Karroubi and forced Mir Hossein Moussavi to leave the area.
10. In a meeting with the minority faction of the Iranian Parliament, Seyyed Mohammad Khatami, the former president of Iran strongly criticized the treatment of the detainees and categorized it as a “crime.” He emphasized that the closure of a single detention centre does not suffice: “it is not enough to say that a non-standard detention centre is closed down. What is meant by non-standard? Did it lack air conditioning or were the facilities non-hygienic?” While criticizing the methods for obtaining “confessions” or killing the civilians he added: “The loss of a single drop of blood is a disaster, imagine what has occurred in this case.”
11. In a letter to Seyyed Mahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi, the Head of the Judiciary, dated 19 Tir 1388, Mehdi Karroubi wrote: “Following the election and the hasty and illegitimate announcement of the results, millions objected to the illegal and unethical manner in which it was conducted. The authorities were in a position to respond appropriately, satisfy the critics and conduct an objective investigation in response to complaints by the candidates. Instead, they opened fire on the demonstrators, arrested those who objected to the illegal results of the election en masse, attacked people’s homes at night, destroyed privately owned vehicles and even kidnapped a few individuals. They attacked dorms and fired on young Iranian women and men. Some of the violations have been carried out by plainclothes forces; and some by uniformed Basijis, Pasdars and security officers. In this manner, although it was not explicitly mentioned, a form of military coup was enforced upon the nation. A considerable number of detainees included patients, expectant mothers and even government officials in various positions over the past few decades. None were accorded the right to seek legal counsel and many of their families are not aware of their whereabouts or wellbeing. All of these acts committed by government officials constitute violation of legal codes and are in contradiction to Articles 22, 23, 24, 27, 32, 37, 38, and 39 of the law and Article 125 of the Criminal Code. Unfortunately, the judiciary has failed to react to these violations and the Tehran court is used as a means to repress those who protest the election results.”
12. Yadollah Javani, the Head of the Political Office of the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps, by publishing an article in the Sobh-e Sadegh Weekly published by the IRGC, demanded the arrest, trial and punishment of Mir Hossein Moussavi, Seyyed Mohammad Khatami, Seyyed Mohammad Moussavi Khoeiniha and Mehdi Karroubi.
13. In a letter addressed to the Head of the Judiciary, Ali Motahhari, the representative of Tehran at the parliament, strongly criticized the inhumane and illegal treatment of those prisoners who have objected to the results of the election.
14. In a letter to Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani dated 7 Mordad 1388, Mehdi Karroubi describes the oral accounts he has received regarding the condition of post-election detainees: “Some have been illegally and inappropriately arrested. Others have been subject to beatings. Some have been injured and murdered. People’s residences as well as student dormitories have been raided and turned into a bloodbath. Even on the streets women have been subject to savage and horrendous abuse, in an unprecedented manner. These acts should be investigated. But certain other horrific acts have been committed that if it were not for many sources, you and I would have had a hard time believing them no matter how experienced we may be. Severe and brutal beatings have been reported such that after 40 days the victims are still not in stable condition… Some of the detainees have reported that certain individuals have so severely raped some of the girls in custody that the attacks have caused excruciating damage and injury to their reproductive organs. At the same time, they report that others have raped young boys so violently that after their release, they have had to endure great physical and mental pain, that leaves them lying in a corner of their home since.”
15. In a letter to Gholamhossein Ezhei, the Minister of Intelligence, dated 2 Mordad 1388, Mehdi Karroubi writes: “Are the recent experiences of Iranians in accordance with law or in their national interest? Were not these events the same as the violent attacks on the universities, the chain murders, including those of the Forouhars or Zahra Kazemi? As none of the elements responsible for those acts were identified or their cases followed up by the authorities, we are witnessing history repeat itself. Why are not the plainclothes forces and the Basijis investigated? The current intelligence and security divisions have become centres of questionable activities. At times it appears as though the intelligence forces fail to carry out their mandate. By focusing only on the current political tensions and the protection of a single figure, it remains irresponsive to the recent atrocities or fails to engage in the restoration of the rights of the persecuted. How unfortunate that in the name of defending and protecting national security, intelligence forces engage in activities that sadden everyone. How surprising that the intelligence officials remain uninformed or insensitive to these activities! The security and intelligence forces beat and detain our youth in illegal facilities and subject them to the most violent forms of physical and mental torture with impunity. It has reached the point where Evin prisoners thank God for what they have compared to those arrested after the elections. Mr. Mohseni Ezhei, is it your mission to use your security forces to publicly beat innocent Iranian youth who object to the results of the elections and soaked in their own blood transfer them to prisons, leave their fates unknown and their families in anxiety? Is it Islamic grace to murder our young men and women in custody, dismiss all responsibility and defend the irresponsible elements in their charge by presenting them as innocent? Do you, the Minister of Intelligence, know of the fate of those detained in illegal prisons such as Kahrizak, Shourabad and others around Tehran? (According to reliable sources) Has there ever been an investigation into the non-conventional treatment of detainees by military and paramilitary forces prior to their arrest? As a conscientious Minister of Intelligence do you consider it logical to open fire on peaceful protestors? Are you unaware of these events, or like others, consider it wise to leave these questions unanswered? There are many unpleasant reports about victims and their uninformed families. The authorities have refused to provide a figure as to the number of the victims. Do you also lack these statistics? … Are the reactions to people’s peaceful protests such as illegal detentions, interrogation methods from the Dark Ages and coerced confessions, in accordance with Islamic laws, democracy or today’s culture? I ask you, is there a specific definition for prison or can civilians be held in mosques, schools and basements of government offices and buildings without the information of the judiciary, their families or legal representatives? In your view, can such harsh and repressive measures respond to the demands of our nation and the international community? Are you, our respected Minister of Intelligence, truly unaware of the plainclothes forces who increasingly and freely oppress the masses?”
16. Mir Hossein Moussavi, Mehdi Karroubi and Seyyed Mohammad Khatami were refused entry to the breaking the fast ceremonies at Amir mosque on Marzdaran St. in Tehran.
17. Families of detainees who gathered around Evin to break their fast together were confronted by military forces.
18. Brigadier General Abdollah Araqi, the Commander of the Mohammad Rasoul Allah Sepah told IRNA that Basijis were deployed at the request of the military forces. From 25 Khordad to 25 Mordad Sepah and Basiji forces were in charge.
19. In response to a letter of complaint addressed to Ayatollah Khamenei, an article in Sobh-e Sadegh, the official publication of the political office of the Vali Faqih’s representative to the IRGC, referred to Abdolkarim Soroush as an ‘apostate.’
20. After an announcement by the supporters of Mehdi Karroubi and Mir Hossein Moussavi in response to their call for participation in the Ghods Day demonstration (the last Friday in Ramadan), the IRGC publicized that “We warn individuals and movements that are involved in pouring water on the mill of Zionist enemies, should they cause disruption and disorder during the glorious Ghods Day march, they will encounter decisive action by the brave and bold children of the nation.”
3. State Media and its Reports Surrounding the Presidential Elections
After publishing the results of the presidential elections, newspapers and internet-based publications were subjected to limitations and pressures that clearly violate legal norms. While even during armed conflict reporters and photojournalists must face no barriers in carrying out their assignments, the following incidents took place:
1. Arrest of journalists and web-loggers
1. The following were arrested as of 23 Khordad 1388: Ahmad Zeidabadi, Abdolreza Tajik, Mohammad Ghouchani, Keyan Samimi Behbahani, Amhsa Amrabadi, Behzad Bashou, Seyyed Khalil Mir Ashrafi, Somayyeh Tohidlou, Mohammad Atrianfar, Saeed Hajjarian, Mohammad Ali Abtahi, Saeed Lilaz, Rouhollah Shahvar, Mashallah Heidarzadeh, Hamideh Mahouzi, Amanollah Shojaee, Hossein Shokoohi, Hengameh Shahidi, Fariba Pazhouh, Isa Saharkhiz, Bahman Ahmadi Amouie, Massoud Bastani, Fiaz Zahed, Mohammad Reza Nourbakhsh, Ali Pir Hosseinlou, Mohsen Azmoudeh, Robabeh Babakhani, Mssoud Lavassani, Mehdi Mahmoudian, Hossein Nouraninejad, Maziar Bahari, Majid Saeedi, Mohammad Davari, Shiva Nazarahari, Somayyeh Nosrati, Mir Hamid Hassanzadeh, Esmaeel Haghparast, Seyyed Ammar Kalantari, Foad Sadeqi, Tohid Beigi, Zhila Baniyaghoub, Alireza Beheshtipour Shirazi, Mojtaba Tehrani, Mehdi Zaboli, Fariborz Soroush, Kambiz Norouzi, Mohammad Reza Yazdanpanah, Saeedollah Badashti, Kaveh Mozaffari and Mojtaba Pourhassan.
2. Amir Aslani, the CEO of a software company was arrested.
3. Twenty-five of the members of the editorial board of “Kalameh-e Sabz” newspaper, which belongs to Mir Hossein Moussavi, were arrested.
4. Mehdi Yazdani Khorram was arrested by plainclothes officers on a street.
5. Hossein Dalir, a documentary filmmaker, was arrested.
2. Limitations on Dissemination of Information
1. After receiving threats, “Etemad-e Melli” newspaper, a publication by Etemad-e Melli party and “Kalameh-e Sabz” owned by Mir Hossein Moussavi were not published.
2. Parliament News, Taghir and Kerman Nama news databases, Green movement (GRS), Green Wave of Freedom and the Press Association sites were filtered. The staff in charge of websites for Etemad-e Melli Party and Saham News faced difficulties in accessing their sites.
3. The sites for Entakhab and Ayandeh were banned on 30 Khordad
4. Yahoo Messenger, Yahoo Microsoft and several other similar services were filtered. Yahoo, Gmail, YouTube, Facebook and PersianBlog were filtered and BLOGFA was disconnected.
5. Between 45% and 70% of the Internet bandwidth failed and in effect, the Internet was blocked.
6. During the last hours of Thursday, the 21st of Khordad, exactly a day ahead of the elections, the national short message network (SMS) was shut down.
7. After the elections, the nightly service for mobile networks was interfered with.
8. German television networks, ZDF and IRD announced their reporters were not permitted to file their reports on the protests while BBC announced that the Iranian government had interfered with their Persian broadcast services. Following coverage of street protests in Iran, the Arabic Network, Al-Arabiya, was not permitted to work for a week.
9. At the order of the Minister of Culture and Islamic Guidance, John Leyne, a BBC reporter was forced out of Iran.
10. Newspapers were faced with challenges for publishing news regarding Mehdi Karroubi and Mir Hossein Moussavi
11. The Department of Press and News Agencies warned Etemad-e Melli and Aftab-e Yazd newspapers.
12. Mashallah Shamsolvaezin, the speaker of the Association of Free Press was summoned to the Ministry of Intelligence. His interviews have been limited.
13. Hossein Karroubi and Mohammad Javad Haghshenas, the editors of Etemad-e Melli Newspaper were summoned to the court.
14. Following their meeting in Berlin, BBC, Deutsche Welle, French International Radio, Voice of America and the Dutch International Radio issued a statement expressing concerns regarding the limitations imposed on free exchange of news and information in a number of countries, including Iran.
15. Rakhshan Banietemad, producer and filmmaker, expressed her shame in not having received permission to record what Iranian mothers are going through.
16. The IRGC issued a statement accusing a group of “fabricating lies and accusations and organizing riots” through the Internet in order to “promote disruption” and “spread rumors.” According to this statement by the “center for investigation of organized crime” of the IRGC, requires webmasters to omit content that “promotes disruption and incites rumors and public unrest” otherwise “legal action on our part can result in serious consequences.”
17. Following the publication of an open letter by Mohammad Nourizad to the Supreme Leader of the Islamic Republic, Keyhan Newspaper reported about his expulsion from Anjoman-e Ghalam (Fundamentalist Writers’ Association).
18. The Legal Office of the President filed a complaint against Ayatollah Sanei.
19. Following the spread of various items regarding Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, the Expediency Council filed a complaint against Iran, Vatan-e Emrooz newspapers, as well as the Fars News Agency. Similarly, the Institute in Charge of Publishing Works by Imam Khomeini filed a complaint against Keyhan Newspaper.
3. Miscellaneous items:
1. A protest planned at the office of the Press Association against increasing censors by journalists, the presence of intelligence officers in publishing houses, widespread arrests of journalists was cancelled.
2. With regards to the rise in the number of imprisoned journalists, one must refer to the summons, direct and indirect threats against the members of the media by intelligence organizations. An example includes the case of a number of reporters who sent an open letter to the Supreme Leader but then signed a recantation letter denying the earlier letter.
3. In a letter to Ezzatollah Zarqami, the Head of the IRIB, Mehdi Hashemi Rafsanjani demanded the broadcast of his letter denying the accusations laid against him in national media.
4. The Vice-President of the Health Commission of the Parliament warned against the health hazards of the telecommunications and satellite jamming signals on the residents of Tehran.
4. The Injured, the Wounded and the Victims of the Post-Elections Unrest
Although the commander of the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps announced in his new conference the number of those killed in the 2009 Iranian election protests to be at 29, and that 20 of whom belonged to the Basij force [literally, mobilization force; this is a paramilitary volunteer militia founded by the order of the Ayatollah Khomeini in November 1979, who receive their orders, at least in theory, directly from the Revolutionary Guards Corp], the committee for the pursuit of the affairs of those who were imprisoned or killed during the protests that followed the 2009 presidential elections, announced the addition of three more names to the list of those killed, that had earlier included 69 names. Mohammad-Reza Tabesh, general secretary of "Imam's Line" (Rah) fraction in the parliament, also considered the number of those killed during these protests to be more than what was announced by this military official. Therefore, the committee for the pursuit of the affairs of those who were imprisoned or killed during these protests sent the names of those who were killed to some of the officials. Neda Agha-Soltan, Mohsen Rouhol Amini, Amir Javadifar, Behzad Mohajer, Sohrab Aarabi, Massoud Hashemzadeh, Mohammad Kamrani, Taraneh Moussavi, and Ashkan Sohrabi were some of those killed during the recent protests whose names has been sent to the relevant officials in order for their cases to be pursued. On the other hand, criminal cases were filed at the criminal prosecutor's office for [the deaths of] Sohrab Aarabi, Mohsen Rouhol Amini, Amir Javadifar, and Neda Agha-Soltan.
1. Kahrizak Detention Centre

Upon the dissemination of the news concerning a detention centre in the southeast of Tehran, on Tuesday 6 Mordad 1388, it was announced that Ayatollah Khamenei, the supreme leader of the Islamic Republic, has issued an order for the closure of the Kahrizak detention centre. Saeed Jalili, secretary of Iran's Supreme National Security Council, announced that the supreme leader of the Islamic Republic "has issued the order for the closure of one detention centre that lacked the necessary standards for the protection of the rights of the detainees."

According to what the general office of the information and public relations of the Islamic Republic Security Forces has announced, Kahrizak was a detention centre for the temporary detention and correction of rascals and rogues arrested during the plan for the promotion of social order and stability, and that it was built with harsh living conditions and managed by the Islamic Republic Security Forces. But Hamid Derakhshan-nia, Deputy Prosecutor General of the Tehran province presents other explanations in regards with that centre: "The section in regards with the opinions and suggestions of the committee for the protection of the civil rights, in its report dated 6/8/1386 under the title of "section 3 of the suggestions" has mentioned: "in line with section 14 of the guidelines for the protection of the civil rights in regards with correcting the illegal actions at the mentioned detention centre and transfer of the detainees to the legal detention centers, necessary steps [should] be taken." … In the end, I clarify and insist that the letter of the respected Director General of the prisons of the province of Tehran, numbered 23039/205, dated 19/8/1386, in which it has been mentioned that the said detention centers will be controlled and monitored and also the text of the [hand-written] letter of the Prosecutor General of the Tehran province upon auditing the Kahrizak detention center (about 50 days after the auditing of the committee and its subsequent report) is another testimony to the mentioned remarks in regards with the efforts of the respected members of the committee and its honorable chairman to oblige the founders and managers of that detention center to improve its conditions to the standard levels and enforcing the auditing of the General Office of the Prisons upon it – in consideration of the lack of success in the closing down of that detention center."

In regards with this matter, Hamid-Reza Katouzian, a member of the parliament of the Islamic assembly, upon mentioning that the National Police Chief is responsible for the "killing incidents at Kahrizak", said that the commanders of this force are refraining from presenting any information about the violators in Kahrizak.

Mohsen Rouhol Amini, son of Dr. Abdol Hossein Rouhol Amini (former director of the Pasteur Institute), an adviser to Mohsen Rezaee and General Secretary of the Development and Justice methodical party, was one of the people who were arrested during the 2009 election protests, and that after a while his body was delivered to his family. The cause of the death of Mohsen Rouhol Amini was announced as Meningitis. However, after the funeral, his father announced that upon receiving his remains, he noticed that his son's jaws had been crushed, and that there had been a crack in his skull. Almost at the same time as the spreading of this news, the death of Mohammad Kamrani, one of the other detainees of the post-election protests, was also announced due to Meningitis. It was said he had head injuries at the time of his death as well.

In this accord, Dariush Ghanbari, a Member of Parliament of the Islamic Assembly, during a conversation [an interview] with the reporter of the news agency of "Imam's Line" (Rah) fraction, "Parleman News", expressed the severe anxiety of the members of this fraction concerning the method of encounter and inquiry in some of the detention centers, including Kahrizak; and said: "In some of these detention centers the civil rights are not respected and the investigators beat and curse the detainees." But Sardar Ahmadi-Moghaddam, commander of the Security Forces, has announced that 7 to 10 of the members of this force have been arrested in connection with the Kahrizak case. He also claimed that the Kahrizak incident has been exaggerated, and that much of the claimed incidences have not happened at all. It was probably because of this reason that Farhad Tajari, a member of the committee to pursue the condition of the detainees of the pos-election protests mentioned that in a sense it is not befitting for this special committee to announce the names of the violators in the Kahrizak incident, because it is possible that in the future these people will be acquitted, and that other people will be indicted.

Of course, the Kahrizak incident did not end with these issues, in a letter that he wrote to Ali-Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, Chairman of the Assembly of Experts, mentioned that, according to some claims, some of the detainees who were held in this detention center were sexually abused.

Ebrahim Sharifi is one of the people who claim that they have been raped. He says: "I have a small question from those great ones who on Thursday (the same day that, through the intermediation of Karroubi he goes to the medical examiner's office, along with judicial authorities, to examine and study his claims) interrogated me like a convict. They grabbed me, I was in prison, I was blind-folded and my hands were tied, they beat me [almost] to the point of death, and worst of all, they did something to me that is indecent and revolting [even] in the eyes of the infidels and idol-worshippers, and I dared to inform only Mr. Karoubi of this. My complaint is not directed against a real person, because I know that, unfortunately, in our country a low-level person or a low-rank group is always blamed, and that the real perpetrators are never dealt with in a fitting and proper manner."

2. Arrest of Political Activists and Members of Political Parties

After the announcement of the results of Iran's tenth presidential elections which, because of the violations, some of the parties and political groups called it "unhealthy", [some of] the policies which violated human rights, such as "non-delivery of subpoena before detention", "non-presentation of the order of judicial authorities for the arrests", "non-accessibility to lawyers", were set in motion in wide scales against a large number of political activists, in such a way that even the constitution and other judicial laws of Iran were neglected. The names of some of the prisoners that have been submitted to DHRC or appear in news are:

1. Mosharekat-e Iran Islamic Party: Mohsen Mirdamadi, Mohammad Reza Khatami, Zahra Mojarradi, Zohre Aghajari, Saeed Hajarian, Abdollah Ramazanzadeh, Mohsen Safaie Farahani, Mohsen Aminzadeh, Azar Mansouri, Ali Tajernia, Davoud Soleimani, Mehdi Mirdamadi, Mehdi Shirzad, Hossein Naimipour, Ali Pir Hosseinlou, Hossein Nourinejad, Mehdi Mahmoudian, Hamzeh Ghalebi, Saeed Shirkavand, Saeed Shariari, Mohsen Hajanian, Shahaboddin Tabatabaie, Jalal Mohammadlou, Mostafa Tajzadeh, Ali Taghipour and Saeed Nourmohammadi
2. Mojahedin Enghelab Eslami Organization: Behzad Nabavi, Seyyed Ahmad Hosseini, Javad Emam, Feizollah Arab Sorkhi, Sadegh Norouzi, Majid Nayyeri and Alireza Eftekhari
3. Etemad-e Melli Party: Ebrahim Amini and Faiyaz Zahed
4. Kargozaran-e Sazandegi Party: Mohammad Atrianfar, Jahanbakhsh Khanjani, Hedayatollah Aghaie, Roshanak Siyasi and Ayda Mesbahi
5. The Assembly of Combatant Clerics: Mohammad Ali Abtahi
6. The Organization of Islamic Iran Graduates: Ahmad Abadi Zayd and Abdullah Momeni, Amir Aqtnayy, Hamed Iranshahi and Musa Saket
7. The Assembly of Researchers and Scholars of the Islamic Seminary: Abdolrahim Soleimani
8. Freedom Movement of Iran: Ebrahim Yazdi, Mohammad Tavassoli, Emad Behavar, Ahmad Afjei, Ali Mehrdad, Saeed Zeratkar, Rouhollah Shafiee, Mohammad Reza Ahmadinia, Mojtaba Khandan, Mohsen Hakimi, Mohammad Bagher Alavi, Ghaffar Farazdy, Jalil Sharbyanlou, Ghafarzadh, Ali Ashraf Azar, Panahi, Seif Lu, Laya Farzdy, Majid Jaberi, Dadyzadeh, Mehdi Yar Bahrami, Mansour Ghaffari, Rahmatollah Amiri, Amir Hossein Jahani, Rahim Yavari, Rouhollah Rahim Pour, Mehdi Khodadadi, Yaghoubzadeh, Ms. Sabet, Ms. Shamloo, Ahad Rezaei, Reza Arjyny, Jalal Bahrami, Sadegh Rasouli, Mansour Vafa and Bagher Fathali Beigi
9. Muslim Combatant Movement: Abbas Pourazhari, Rahim Hemmati and Reza Kazemi
10. National Religious Activists Council: Haleh Sahabi, Taghi Rahmani, Reza Alijani, Hadi Ehtezazi and Hoda Saber
11. National Front: Kourosh Zaeem
12. People’s Freedom Party: Keyvan Samimi Behbahani
13. Solidarity Party: Abbas Mirza Aboutalebi
14. Civil Society Party: Hossein Mojahed
15. Campaign staff of Mir Hossein Moussavi and Mehdi Karroubi: Seyyed Alireza Hosseini Beheshti, Shamsoddin Isaie, Mohammad Reza Jalaiepour, Mohammad Ezati Moghaddam, Shapour Kazemi, Morteza Alviri, Hossein Tajik, Mohammad Zabihi, Taha Zabihi, Saiedeh Kurdinejad, Ali Vefghi, Hossein Nikkhah, Reza Homaie, Abbas Kousha, Amir Hossein Shemshadi, Roya Hosni, Alireza Hashemi, Hamzeh Karami, Somayeh Tohidlou, Hossein Moussavi, Hassan Souri and Ali Maghami
16. Civil and political activists: Kobra Zaghedoust, Ashkan Eskandari, Zahra Jabbari, Atefeh Nabavi, Javad Lari, Mohsen Dogmehchi, Fatemeh Sortoudeh, Kiyan Tajbakhsh, Reza Taghavi, three grandchildren of Ayatollah Montazeri: Hamed, Naser and Hajer Montazeri, three other grandchildren of Ayatollah Montazeri along with Marziyeh Elahinia the spouse of Hamed Montazeri and Sara Azizi, the spouse of Nasser Montazeri and Laiya Rabbani the daughter of the late Ayatollah Rabbani Amleshi, Batoul Mostafavi-Montazeri, his daughter-in-law, Mohammad Hossein Rabbani and Zahra Doust Mohammadi, his grandchildren, Fatemeh Dardkeshan, Ziaoddin (Mostafa) Nabavi, Edris Ariyashokouh, Ziaoddin Sabouri, Faezeh Hashemi Rafsanjani and her daughter Mona Lahouti, Farideh Hasheminejad, the sister-in-law and spouse of Hossein Marashi and a member of Kargozaran-e Sazandegi Party along with her daughter, Tahereh Marashi, Rassoul Bodaghi, Mohammad Maleki, Hessam Salamat, Naseh Faridi, Adrian Jalali, Clotilde Reiss (French citizen), Kamran Assa, Nazok Afshar (Employee of the French Embassy), Zahra Mirnevisi, Spouse, brother and sister-in-law of Ali Tajernia, Alireza Khoshbakht, Majid Zamani, Mahnaz Mohammadi, Jafar Panahi along with is wife and daughter, Firouzeh Khosravani, Rokhsareh Ghaemmaghami, Shadi Sadr, Hossein Rasam (Employee of the British Embassy), Mehdi Khazali, Sara Sabbaghiyan, Bahareh Dolou, Amir Raiesiyan, Mahtab Nasirpour, Homa Rousta, Hossein Zaman, Raouf Taheri, Ahmad Madadi, Reza Abbasi, Mohammad Hossein Davoudi, Khosravani, Hashem Khastar, Motlagh, Mehdi Moussavinejad, Mohammad Azadi, Hassan Amini, Mohsen Bastani, Mehrdad Balafkan, Adel Dahdashti, Mehdi Abaie, Ahmad Moradi, Javid Ramazanpour, Mansour Nabizadeh, Rouhollah Shahsavari, Mohsen Rouzbahan, Hassan Moadikhah, Alireza Khoshbakht, Zahra Tohidi, Haniyeh Youssefian, Ehsan Bakeri, Saeed Nikkhah, Homaie, Fattahi, Zakeri and Mahmoud Ebrahimi



3. Trial of Civil and Political Activists

The first session to investigate the charges against about 30 of the defendants of the post-election incidents, was held Mordad 10th, 1388, in the revolutionary court of the 15th district, in the Imam Khomeini hall of the Department of Justice of the Tehran province, preside by Judge Salavati. The charges propounded in the bill of indictment issued from the Public Prosecutor's office and the revolutionary prosecutor's office in Tehran were announced as actions against national security, disturbing the public order, destruction of the public property and government places. In this session people such as Behzad Nabavi, Mohammad Atrianfar, Mohammad-Ali Abtahi, Mohsen Mirdamadi, Abdullah Ramezanzadeh, and Mosen Aminzadeh were observed. To date, the court has also held four more sessions.

However, according to the articles, which were ratified by the Expediency Council, to hold a court session without the presence of the attorney of the defendants is illegal. All defendants must have access to lawyers and have the right to remain silent. Furthermore, according to the constitution the court should provide the grounds for the access to lawyer for everyone. It was due to this that Mohammad-Reza Tabesh, the secretary general of the "Imam's Line" fraction, during a talk with the reporter of the news agency of this faction, "Parloman [Parliament] News", said: "The manner of the trial of the detainees, in which there are no accesses to [defense] attorneys, and that neither the families nor even the prisoners themselves are aware of the charges, has astonished everyone. With regards to the condition of Mohammad-Ali Abtahi, Tabesh conveyed the message of his wife, who had visited him: "After 43 days, when I saw my spouse, he had lost 18 kilograms, and Mr. Abtahi was saying that for a few days they have been giving him a certain pill that has released him from the cares and chaos and conditions of this world."

4. Sentences for Civil and Political Activists
1. Mohammad Reza Ali Zamani, Arash Rahmanipour, Hamed Rohaninejad and Davoud Faricheh Mir Ardebili were charged with membership in “Monarchy Society of Iran” and Nasser Abdolhosseini with contact with Mojahedin. They are among detainees who are sentenced to death in the post-election trials. It is important to note that some were arrested prior to the presidential elections.
2. Abdollah Nejad, lawyer and graduate student, was sentenced to 28 months in prison.
5. Miscellaneous:
1. Due to suffering from hernia, Behzad Nabavi, senior member of the Islamic Revolutionary Mojahedin, was transferred to Baghiyatollah Hospital.
2. In a letter addressed to the Head of the Judiciary, Mohammad Maleki’s spouse described his illnesses and poor physical condition and requested for the transfer of her 76 year-old husband, the oldest political prisoner, to a hospital in order to receive medical attention.
3. Hadi Rasie, the son of Jamshid Rasaie, a member of Gilan branch of Mosharekat Party and Mojahedin, who was arrested during the demonstrations on Ghods Day, stated that during his 24 hour long detention, he was constantly subjected to beating.
4. Security forces interrupted the funeral ceremonies of Mohsen Rouholamini.
5. Deputy Head of Security and Law Enforcement of Khorasan announced that 86 arrests had taken place in that province, while the Public Prosecutor of Tabriz announced the arrest of 50 to 60 citizens, the Public Prosecutor of Esfahan of 200, Public Prosecutor of Zanjan of 30, and the President of the Court in Lorestan of a number of arrests from among the protestors who took part in the earliest days of the post-election demonstrations.



5. Circumstances Surrounding Universities and Students after the Elections

After announcing the results of the tenth presidential elections, the students from universities throughout the country reacted by holding gatherings. Following the student protests against the elections results at Tehran University, plainclothes [security] forces entered student dormitories and attacked its residents, as a result of which tens of students were injured and hurt. The intrusion into the Tehran University quarters and attacking the students were met with severe criticism from the leader of the Islamic Republic. Seyyed Mohammad Khatami, the former president of Iran, in response to this action, clarified that "preventing the investigation of an issue such as the savage attacks on student dormitories or the condition of prisoners by the parliament" means "deviation from the system." In this regard, reports sent to the DHRC indicate that students at various universities throughout Iran have been summoned or arrested by disciplinary committees and security centres. They include:

1. Arrested students: Eftekhar Bozorgiyan, Kaveh Olad, Ayoub Nemati, Mohsen Jafari Moghaddam, Ali Refahi, Kazem Rezaie, Ghulamreza Hosseinzadeh, Mahboubeh Khademi, Dalir Barkhoda, Ali Salehpour, Mohammad Amin Karimi, Hamzeh Benam, Abbas Rahmati, Vahid Estakhr, Hamdollah Namjou, Esmail Jalilvand, Arash Giti, Ali Ghassemi, Milad Sarhadi, Siamak Yaghouti, Mohsen Sanatipour, Shayan Sarami, Amin Riyahi, Mehdi Khosravi, Hessam Salamat, Ezat Torbati, Amir Hossein Estiri, Ehsan najafi, Aydin Khajei Faraz Zehtab, Sajjad Taherzadeh, Sahand Bakhtiarpour, Mostafa Monfared, Mehdi Karimi, Hossein Rahimi, Amin Nikzadeh, Saeed Shojaeezadeh, Khosro Mousanavand, Siavash Hatam, Mehdi Mosafer, Hojjat Bakhtiari, Pouria Sharifiyan, Reza Jafariyan, Naseh Faridi, Alireza Ashouri, Nima Nahavi, Iman Seddiqi, Mohsen Barzegar, Hessamoddin Bagheri, Siavash Saliminejad, Hamid Reza Jahantigh, Ali Taghipour, Mehrdad Eslamkhah, Amin Ostadi, Milad Garajiyan, Behzad Parvin, Ali Sepandar, Ashkan Zahabiyan, Mohammad Esmailzadeh, Amir Kalhar, Hessam Nasiri, Ali Shojaie, Payam Heydar Ghazvini, Nasim Riyahi, Mojtaba Rahimi, Ata Rashidi, Siamand Ghiasi, Mohammad Jafari, Majid Dorry, Mostafa Mehdizadeh, Amin Nazari, Alireza Kiai, Milad Hossein Keshtan, Ali Nazari, Siavash Safavi, Ali Dinari, Rahman Yaghoubi, Maziar Yazdani, Ali Abbasi, Shavaneh Ghaderi, Amirhossein Sarhaddi, Bahram Bahramiyan, Shahriar Hosseinbar, Ahmad Rigi, Saeed Arbabzehi, Leila Asfari, Alireza Babalou, Mojtaba Khodakarami, Saman Valadbeigi, Mostafa Ahoukhesh, Moslem Zamani, Omar Hessabi, Mansour Yaghouti and Mehdi (Soheil) Yadegari
2. Summons to and sentences by disciplinary committees:
1. Hamidreza Sahraie, Sajjad Hosseinifakhr, Mohsen Barzegar, Iman Seddighi, Hessam Bagheri, Nima Nahvi, Ahmad Mohammadnia, Hamidreza Kahantigh, Mohammad Alami, Raziyeh Daylam Salehi, Moein Eslamijam, Siavash Saliminejad, Amir Kasra Kiani, Arash Moeini, Kaveh Daneshvar, Mehdi Kazemi Nasab, Javad Shafiei, Marzieh Shafiei, Siavash Hatam, Pouria Sharifian, Hojjat Bakhtiari, Reza jafarian, Mehdi Mossafer, Ali Rezaie, Farid Zandi, Kianoush Rezaie, Mehdi Hakimi, Mostafa Mehdizadeh, Homeira Khalili, Negar Esmailian, Hossein Zamani, Mohammad Ali Ghahremani, Reza Jafari Mohammad Hassan Eskandarian were summoned. Reza Arab, Alireza Kiani, Milad Hossein Keshtan, Siavash Safavi, Ali Nazari, Ali Asghar Adinehvand, Arnoush Azrahimi, Marjan Faiazi, Siavash Rezaiyan, Mehdi Davoudiyan, Mehdi Mohammad Takdam, Maziar Yazdani Nia were also summoned.
2. Shahriar Hosseinbar and Amin Salehi were sentenced to removal from two full terms and consideration of credit and possible expulsion by the central disciplinary committee, Sattar Mahmoudi, Sina Ghassemi, Sajjad Barimani, Mohsen Khoshniyat, Ali Lotfi were sentenced to removal of two full terms including duration, Maysam Shamsi, Hossein Rastegar, Armin Gharagozlou were sentenced to removal of two terms and Babak Zamaniyan was denied three terms. Ali Pars and Morteza Simiari were prohibited from enrolling in university.
3. Arrest of Professors: Izadi and Majzoubi, two professors at Bouali Sina University in Hamadan, Seyyed Hassan Soltani, student assistant at Honar University, Kermanshah, a professor at Sharif Industrial University, Hosseinali Arab, a member of the academic council of the College of Veterinarian Medicine at Tehran University and Hamid Choubineh, a professor at the College of Medicine of Tehran University were arrested.



4. Miscellaneous:



1. Three protests were held at Shiraz University. The third one ended in conflict.
2. Seyyed Massoud Alavi, a student at Oroumiyyeh Open University was suspended for two terms and was also sentenced to a 200,000 touman fine and 30 lashes.
3. The office of the Islamic Organization of Mazandaran University was shut down
4. The office of the Islamic Organization of students at Engineering College of the Sistan and Balouchestan University was set on fire by unknown individuals.



5. Circumstances Surrounding Civil Organizations and Parties after the Elections
1. The office of “Association for Defense of the Rights of Prisoners” was shut down.
2. The office of the “Iranian Press Association” which came into existence in Tehran around 12 years ago and gradually expanded its activities nationwide, was shut down around 9 pm on Wednesday, 14 Mordad. Prior to this and due to a dispute over elections at the Association, the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs of the ninth government under President Ahmadinejad took the Association to the Court of Administrative Justice. The Association is the only body that is able to pursue claims one behalf of reporters and journalists. Its office was shut down while members were busy preparing for the annual general meeting planned for 15 Mordad 1388.
3. The office of the committee appointed by Moussavi and Karroubi and responsible to inquire and follow up on cases of post-election detainees, casualties or victims of the Green Movement protests, was shut down. Documents and papers of the committee were confiscated.
4. The office of Mehdi Karroubi was shut down.
5. Offices of Etemad-e Melli and Mosharekat Parties were shut down.
6. The Publishing Office of Works by Ayatollah Seyyed Mohammad Hosseini Beheshti (the first president of the Supreme Judicial Council) was temporarily shut down.
7. Election headquarters of reformists, including the one known as “Gheytariyeh” were shut down.



Section II: Human Rights Report for the First Half of 1388

1. Civil and Political Rights

Since the government of Iran, which according to internal civil commitments, such as Article 9 of Civil Code, is committed to the mandatory infringements of the International Covenant of Civil and Political Rights (1966), it is obliged to pay attention to the needs of guaranteeing the civil and political rights of individuals. But from what the present situation indicates, the level of commitment of the government towards these basic rights, does not point to a bright future. The human rights report for the Spring and Summer of 1388 is as follows:

1. Dissident Civil and Political Rights Activists

Sociopolitical Activists and Dissidents The following have been reported to the Centre:

1. Hossein (Aref) Lesani, Mohsen Rafi and Hamed Heydari, Azarbayjani civil activists, and Mohyeddin Azadi were arrested.
2. The Swiss government has announced that its diplomats in Iran have met with Joshua Fattal, Shane Bauer and Sarah Shourd, the three Americans arrested at the Iran-Iraq border.
3. In a letter addressed to the Semnan Provincial Police Force, the family of Abbas Saddighi, who according to the security forces in Shahroud committed suicide at its Detention Centre Nr. 11, denied this issue and instead stated that the cause of his death was physical abuse.
4. Mohammad Sayyadi was transferred to Alvand Prison in Hamdan in order to serve a two-year sentence.
5. Zahedan Public Prosecutor reported of the arrest of 58 Iranian and 30 Afghan citizens during the post-election unrest. They were charged with causing disturbance, fire, destruction, looting private properties and beating.
6. Mehdi Motamedi Mehr, Kaveh Rezaie, Ali Kolaie, Massoud Kurdpour and Farhad Haji Mirzaie and the parents of Reza Younessi, former member of the Islamic Association of Amir Kabir University were released. Hossein Ezzatzadeh, Asghar Fannipour, Hossein Mojtahedi, Haj Aqa Kamilian, Hamid Mojtabaie, Hossein Rayahi, Ali Ghaderi, Mohammad Ali Robati and Ms. Moradi, members of the Iranian National Front were temporarily detained and released soon after.
7. Trial of political and ideological prisoners
1. The session scheduled to look into the accusations laid against two members of the Parliament in relation to the case of Abbas Palizdar was conducted in their absence.
2. The session for Mohammad Karimi, Bahaoddin Saedi, Khaled Mostafazadeh, Ayoub Maroufi, Rahman Rezaie and four other youth whose names remain unknown, was conducted.
3. Abdollah Ramezanzadeh, a member of the central council of Mosharekat Party, at the complaint of the Legal Assistant of the ninth President, was summoned to Branch Nr. 1083 of the Tehran public court.
4. Akbar Aalami, the former representative of Tabriz to the Iranian Parliament was interrogated at the Public Prosecutor’s office in Tehran.
8. Judicial Sentencing:
1. Appeals Court confirmed the six and three-year prison sentences for Arash Alaie and Kamyar Alaie, two doctors working on promoting public awareness about AIDS and helping patients who are suffering from the disease. Sylva Hartounian, an Armenian caregiver, and Mohammad Ehsani were sentenced to three years in prison. Ebrahim Nouri, a 17 year-old Azarbayjani student was sentenced to a suspended five-year prison term. Hamed Yazarlou was sentenced to a three-year and Khadijeh Nabavi Hashemi to a one-year prison term.
2. Branch Nr. 4 of the Kurdestan Appeals Court reduced the execution sentences for Anvar Hossein Panahi and Arsalan Olyaie to one-year and five-year prison sentences, respectively. The Supreme Court cancelled the execution sentence issued for Hiva Boutimar.
3. Abbas Palizdar was sentenced to four years in prison for the crime of acting against national security, and a suspended three-year term for disclosure and publication of confidential government documents, a one-year term for malversation, a one-year term for bribery, money laundering to the Parliament for the sum of 6 million and 642 thousand Rials, a six-month term for liability and scandal and another six-month term for promotion of falsehood.
4. Mohammd Ghaderi was sentences to four months, Jahangir Sohrabi to five years, Zabir Vali Ali to eight years, Sattar Mansouri to four years, Saravan Youssefi to two years and Parviz Fakhrizadeh to two years in prison.
5. Payman Aref’s prison sentence was carried out.
9. Miscellaneous:
1. Seyyed Mohammad Seyfzadeh, a member of the Board of Directors of the Defenders of Human Rights Centre and Chair of the Committee for Free and Fair Elections was summoned to the court. Mr. Seyfzadeh has stated that he has never received a summons from judicial authorities. Prior to this move, IRNA announced that according to the judiciary spokesman, Narges Mohammadi, the vice-chair of the DHRC, was summoned on charges of acting against the regime. Security forces prevented the meeting planned by the Committee in Defense of Free and Fair Elections for 9 Ordibehesht 1388 from taking place. This committee by the DHRC is the first national initiative of its kind and was formed by political and social activists at this grassroots organization.
2. Members of the Board of Directors of the Iranian Lawyers’ Association issued a statement strongly criticizing the new Charter of the Judiciary, describing it as an ineffective and inadmissible piece of legislation.
3. Haj Aqa Ebadi, the principal of Rastegaran Khash School was shot dead. Mamousta Borhan Ali, the temporary Friday prayer leader in Sanandaj and Baharan, was killed at his home by unknown elements. Seyyed Mehdi Takht-e Firouz, the chair of the Sanandaj council was assassinated. Hassan Davtalab, the Judge at Branch Nr. 4 of Sanandaj court was shot as he left his home and suffered a wound at the back of his neck. Mamousta Molla Mohammad Sheykholeslam, the representative of Kurdestan in the Assembly of Experts, was assassinated by unknown armed men.
4. Hadi Ghabel, member of the central council of the Islamic Iran Mosharekat Party was hospitalized. Abbas Palizdar was also hospitalized.
5. Mohammad Oliyaiefard, a lawyer, was accused of publishing falsehood.
6. Memorial services at Hosseiniyeh Ershad in honor of Dr. Yadollah Sahabi and Ayatollah Taleqani were stopped. The Muslim Combatants Movement and the Freedom Movement in Iran were prevented from conducting their annual gatherings.
7. A commemoration at Emam Khomeini’s resting-place was cancelled.
8. Plans for a commemoration at Khavaran Cemetery were stopped.
9. Abdolfattah Soltani, Mohammad Seyfzadeh and Hadi Esmailzadeh, three members of the Board of Directors of the DHRC are banned from leaving the country.
10. Paykar Ali Badozadeh was found near Mahabad.
11. While Mehdi Karroubi was speaking at the Seyyedha Mosque in Arak, electricity was cut off and while Mir Hossein Moussavi was speaking in Mashhad, pepper gas was released.
2. Conditions surrounding Publication, Writers and Journalists

In this regard the following reports address arrests and hearings involving the above-mentioned categories of professionals:

1. Arrests:
1. Naghi Ahmadi Azar Moghaddam and Ali Mahmoudi were arrested.
2. Saeed Matinpour was taken to prison in order to serve an eight-year sentence.
3. Abbas Jalilian, Naghi Ahmadi Azar Moghaddam and Hamed Attaie were released on bail.
4. Mohammad Hassan Fallahiyehzadeh was released from prison.
2. Trials:
1. After complaints were filed by Seyyed Mohammad Khatami, Seyyed Alireza Beheshti and Mehdi Hashemi; the Editors-in-Chief of Iran and Keyhan Newspapers, and managing editors of Fars News Agency and Raja News site were summoned to court. The editor of Yasarat Al-Hossein was deemed criminal and indicted by the Public and Revolutionary Courts and referred to Branch Nr.1083 of the Tehran Public Court.
2. The session scheduled to look into accusations against Hossein Shariatmadari, the Editor-in-Chief of Keyhan Newspaper, Mohammad Javad Haghshenas, Editor-in-Chief of Etemad-e Melli Newspaper, Fereydoun Verdinejad, the Editor-in-Chief of Iran Newspaper at the time, Habibollah Gholsheli, the Editor-in-Chief of Eghtesad Pooya Newspaper, Mohammad Ali Vakili, Editor-in-Chief of Ebtekar Newspaper, Mohammad Vali Mofidi, Editor of the Art of Cooking, Kamran Ahmadpour, Editor of 90, the sports magazine, Mostafa Kavakabiyan, Editor-in-Chief of Mardom Salari Newspaper and Parviz Esmaili, Editor-in-Chief of Tehran Newspaper at the time was held.
3. The session scheduled to look into the case of Mohammad Reza Pahlavan, Editor-in-Chief of Bang publication, Reza Kaffash Tehrani, Editor-in-Chief of Kian, Siasat-e Rooz, Ebtekar, Rooz-e Varzesh, Lian, Moj, Tolid, Sobh-e Azadi, Alborz Sports, Gozaresh and Rasan was postponed.
4. Reza Abbasi, the Editor of Sobh-e Azadi weekly and Mansour Jamshidi, a journalist working on the same publication, were tried. The session looking at an appeal in the case of Roxanna Saberi was conducted. An American-Iranian journalist, Saberi states that she was subjected to an overwhelming degree of psychological pressure so as to confess to conducting espionage activities on behalf of the United States. Reza Saberi, her father, was also summoned to court.
5. The session scheduled for Maysam Zamanabadi, the webmaster of Iran News was postponed.
6. Ahmad Hassan Nejad Ezril, in charge of socioeconomic services of Tadbir-e Farda monthly publication and Mohammad Sadeq Hesar, the editor of the banned paper “Tous” were summoned to the court.
7. Mohammad Sedigh Kaboudvand was tried.
3. Judgments:
1. Saman Rassoulpour, journalist and human rights activist was sentenced to a one-year prison term, as well as Sajjad Khaksari, a journalist working for the banned publication, Ghalame Moallem.
2. Keyvan Samimi’s sentence was sent to the Department of Enforcement.
3. Rooz-e Varzesh Newspaper run by Sadroddin Kazemi was banned for six months once sentence is confirmed, as well as Kargozaran Newspaper, managed by Seyyed Morteza Sajjadiyan. Rasan Monthly run by Sorayya Azizpanah was fined for five million Rials, and Mehdi Rahmaniyan, in charge of the banned paper Shargh was fined for one million Rials in place of imprisonment. The case of Tak Publication, managed by Rajab Rahmani was declared closed. Sobh-e Azadi paper was dismissed from the crime of propagating falsehood and inciting the masses.
4. Publications Administrative Tribunal did not recognize the editor of Siasat Newspaper as guilty, but it did so in the case of the editor of Tolid. Mohammad Naimipour, the editor of Yas-e No was also recognized as guilty in some cases and not in others.
5. The news regarding the sentencing of Abdollah Shahbazi, the former Head of the Political Studies and Research Institute, and the author of “Land and wealth accumulation, the rise of new oligarchy in Iran of today” was found guilty of “propagating lies, insult and defamation.” His sentence of lashing, imprisonment and fine was announced by IRNA prior to any communication to him or his legal representative.
4. Miscellaneous:
1. Vistar, Jame Daran, Nasl-e Noandish, Digar, Agah and Akhtaran are among the publishers, which were refused permission to take part in the 22nd international book exhibition in Tehran. Several books that had received permits were prevented from distribution, such as books by Houshang Golshiri, Sadegh Hedayat, Sadegh Choubak. The day before the exhibition permits for books by the following authors were cancelled: Abbas Maroufi, Ebrahim Golestan, Ahmad Mahmoud and Hossein Sanapour. The following translations were also refused distribution rights: “Hot Water Music” by Charles Bukowski and translated by Bahman Kiarostami, and “The Land of Green Tomatoes.”
2. Speaking on the books held by the Ministry of Guidance, Elaheh Dehnavi, the managing director of Morvarid Publications, said: “Since two and half years ago, a number of works including original works, translations, romances or short stories are held up at the Ministry without any editing or review. One example is a romance entitled “The Road” by McCarthy and translated by Hossein Noushavar, which has not yet been issued a permit. There are about eight or nine other books in the same situation.” She added: “Another book is the second work of Mohammad Reza Rahbarian, entitled “Bar Khakestar-e Ghaghnous” which is a collection of stories by Sadegh Choubak.” Referring to a Shahriar Vaghfipour’s book, a selection of articles on sociology of art, she said: “This book has been held up at the Ministry for two years now.” Her own work entitled “Kaghazhay-e sookhteh: a selection of short stories” is also awaiting permit.
3. The third edition of the book by Parvin Bakhtiarnejad, entitled “Self-burnt Women” was banned. Furthermore, the second romance by Shams Langaroudi called “Who likes failures?” was banned from publishing.
4. In an open letter to Saffar Harandi, the Minister of Culture and Islamic Guidance at the time, Ebrahim Yazdi stated that it has been more than three years that the Ministry has not issued the permit for his book called “Bazargan: An Example of Honesty and Piety.”
5. The Ministry stopped the distribution of “Boat riding in Tehran” by Mohammad Ali Sepanlou”
6. Amir Hosseinzadegan, the manager of Ghaghnous Publishing said: “Certification of publications based on state preferences during the ninth government has caused many headaches for publishing houses, particularly private publishers, which are now facing bankruptcy. For instance, romance novels are edited the most. No submission can be permitted to print without considerable sections deleted and edited out.”
7. Mohammad Ali Jafariyeh, the editor of Sales publishing said: “All publishers today are struggling with editing, and that is editing based on taste. The Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance has set up a convoluted system to cut and control culture. The issue of editing has never been clearly defined and so it changes with each government. At this time, thanks to the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance the editorial cloud has darkened the field of culture more than ever before.”
8. Nazi Oskouie, editor of Digar was summoned. This followed a search conducted through her office and home, where computers, documents and financial papers and deeds were confiscated. Furthermore, Ali Amini, Yashar Amini, two other staff of Nashr were summoned.
9. Yas-e No Newspaper was banned and People and Society Weekly, Voice of Justice Newspaper were banned and their permit cancelled. Velayat-e Ghazvin was also banned.
10. Internal newspapers and publication were not permitted to publish any reference or analysis about Ahmadinejad’s statements or the meeting in Geneva.
11. Based on a decision by its policy council, Football World Newspaper stopped publishing.
12. The sites of Fararo, Feminist School, Amir Kabir News, Tribune, Norouz, Jomhouriyat, Aftab, Yari News and Ensaniyat were filtered. Moj-e 3 and Moj-e 4, internet-based television programs were filtered.
13. The head of the Islamic Propagation Organization spoke about forthcoming rules and regulations on filtering Internet sites.
14. According to the latest statistics, Iran is the least digital friendly country from among 69 countries. An indicator in this ranking was access to high speed Internet.
15. Referring to the danger of reports by Internet sites, Alaeddin Boroujerdi, the head of the security commission of the parliament, spoke about the necessity of officially filtering this group of sites. In this regard, one of the Internet experts has announced that more than ten million sites have so far been filtered. According to Gerdab Group, more than four billion dollars has been spent to block immoral sites. Similarly, the former CEO of Data Co., Rashidi, had announced that more than seven billion touman has been spent on filtering.
16. Referring to the formation of the structure of the Internet Filtering Committee, Ali Motahhari, the Head of the Communications Committee of the parliament stated this body will search through and evaluate content without issuing orders and that it is chaired by the prosecutor general.
17. The Internet Crimes Committee was formed with 12 members (Prosecutor general, Minister of Intelligence, Minister of Justice, Superintendent at the Ministry of Education, Director of Intelligence of NAJA, Deputy Minister of Culture and Islamic Guidance, etc.)
18. Badrossadat Mofidi, Zahra Ebrahimi, Sediqeh (Farzaneh) Roustaie, Narges Mohammadi and Sorayya Azizpanah are among Iranian journalists who have been banned from travelling.
19. Jafar Panahi, Fatemeh Motammed Arya and Mojtaba Mir Tahmaseb are among Iranian directors and actors who have been banned from travelling.
20. According to ILNA, it was not invited to take part in the meeting for determining media representatives for the media committee of the Football Federation.
21. Zhila Baniyaghoub and Saba Azarpeyk were summoned.
22. The passport of Masih Alinejad, a journalist who is studying in London, was confiscated at the Emam Khomeini International Airport.
23. Indictment based on the charge of ‘spreading corruption on earth’ was issued for five Internet criminals.
24. Mohammad Reza Shajariyan published an announcement regarding the illegal distribution of the freedom song, and stated that he will press charges.
25. Azam Taleghani, the editor of banned weekly “Payam-e Hajer” announced that she has been waiting for a court date since 1379. She added: “I applied for another publication called “Rahro” which was approved but not permitted to print.”
3. Universities and Students:

During the first half of 1388 many students were arrested, summoned to disciplinary committees, tried or denied education

1. Arrests:
1. Omid Shokri, the former editor of Sayan, a publication of Payam-e Nour in Ardebil, currently enrolled as a student at Ezmir in Turkey, was arrested upon his return. Mahsa Naderi and Massoud Loghman, graduate students in Communications at Alameh Tabatabaie, Alireza Firouzi, enrolled at Zanjan University and Hamid Malekzadeh, a graduate student in Political Science at Tehran University, were arrested.
2. Massoud Dehghan, Abbas Hakimzadeh, Nariman Mostafavi, Mehdi Mashayekhi, Majid tavakkoli, Ahmad Ghassaban, Esmail Salmanpour, Hossein Tarkashvand, Koorosh Daneshyar and Yasser Torkaman, students at Amir Kabir University, Salman Yazdanpanah, a graduate student studying international relations at Tehran University; Arsalan Asdaqi, Hossein Sashoumi and Bahman Khodadadi, three students at Esfahan University; Mehran Rastegat, a student at Malek Ashtar University in Esfahan and Firouz Youssefi, a law student at Payam-e Nour University in Tehran were released on bail.
3. Shabnam Madadzadeh’s release on bail, arranged by the district attorney, was stopped. She is the deputy secretary of the Tehran council of Tahkim-e Vahdat.
2. Trials
1. Saeed Razavi Faqih, who is studying in France, was summoned to the revolutionary court. Nader Ahsani, a graduate of natural resources engineering at Mazandaran University was summoned to the court and Mahdiyeh Golrou, a student denied the right to education was summoned to the security deputy at the revolutionary court.
2. Ali Nikounesbati, the former public relations officer of Tahkim-e Vahdat was tried.
3. Judgments
1. Ma'asomeh (Iran) Mansouri, a computer science student at Amir-Kabir University, was sentenced to 10 years in prison, and exile to Qezel Hesar prison; Mohammad Sayyadi, former political secretary of the Islamic Society of the Hamadan [University], was sentenced to 2 years of minimum-security prison in the appeals court; Bahram Vahedi, Sorena Hashemi, Arash Rayeji, Payam Shakiba, and Mohammad-Hassan Joneidi, students at Zanjan University were [each] sentenced to one year of prison; Ali-Reza Firouzi, another student of Zanjan University, was sentenced to one year and four months in prison; Farzad Hassanzadeh and Mohammad Zera'ati, students of the Ferdosi University in Mashhad were each sentenced to one year of minimum-security prison which has been turned to a five-year suspended sentence; and Sohrab Karimi, a student at the South Tehran unit of the Free Islamic University, was sentenced to the payment of 2,100,000 toumans, in place of a sentence of two years in prison and 74 lashes. Varya Morovvati, a student at the Payam–e Nour University in Bijar was sentenced in the appeal courts of Kurdestan to one year of prison; Kaveh Rezaie, a member of the central council of the Islamic Association of Bu-Ali University of Hamadan was sentenced to 18 months of minimum-security prison; Ali Kantouri was sentenced to 32 months of prison; Iman Sadighi, Mohsen Barzegar, [and] Nima Nahvi were [each] sentenced to 10 months of minimum–security prison and five years of deprivation from education in the Anoushirvani University in Babol; Siavash Saliminejad and Ali Taghipour [each] were sentenced to ten months in prison (which has been turned to a five-year suspended sentence) and five years of deprivation from education in this university; Hesam Bagheri, Hamid-Reza Jahan-Tigh, [and] Saeid Hoseinpour were [each] sentenced to ten months of suspended prison for a period of five years. Mohammad Esmaeilzadeh, a student in the Payam-e Nour University of Babol and a weblog author was also sentenced to 91 days in a minimum-security prison. He was also sentenced to ten months in prison (which was suspended for a five-year period) for the charges of taking action against the national security and participating in the demonstrations after the elections.
4. Summons and Sentences by Disciplinary Committees
1. The appeals disciplinary committee of the Medical Sciences University of Shahr-e-Kurd issued to Arash Koohi, the former secretary of the Islamic Students Association of this university, the written reprimanding verdict against him and its inclusion in his records. Masoud Heydarifar and Arash Raeeji, students at the University of Zanjan were [each] sentenced to one term of suspension from education, and Siamak Yaghouti, another student at the University of Zanjan was sentenced to two terms of suspension. Soroosh Shekarchian, secretary of the Islamic Students Association of the Medical Sciences University of Zanjan, following the verdict of the disciplinary committee was exiled to the University of Yazd. Taimaz Amir–Aslani, one of the other members of the Islamic Students Association of the Medical Sciences University of Zanjan, was sentenced to six months of suspension from education. Mehran Abbasizadeh, Farough Ma'roufi, Mohammad Quds, Hadi Binesh, Hassan Afshari, Saman Javadinejhad, Amin Shoja', Sa'di Sepanta, Mohammad Sharifi, Sadra Blooki, Amjad Salehi, students at the Teacher Training University, were [each] sentenced to one or two terms of temporary denial of education with consideration of the credits. The high school teacher's licenses of Hassan Afshari, Saman Javadinejad, and Sadi Sepanta have also been waived and these students are obligated to pay for the indemnities for the time that they taught in the high school. The disciplinary committee of the University of Babol announced the sentence of one term of suspension with consideration of the credits, plus one term of suspension without the consideration of the credits, which had been suspended before and is now set in motion, against Mohsen Barzegar; the sentence of one term of suspension without consideration of the credits, plus two terms of deprivation from welfare benefits such as loans and the use of dormitory facilities against Nima Nahvi; the sentence of one term of suspension without consideration of the credits, plus two terms of deprivation from welfare benefits such as loans and the use of dormitory facilities against Mohammad Alami (executive secretary of the Islamic Association); the sentence of one term of suspension with consideration of the credits against Hessamoddin Bagheri (political secretary of the Islamic Association); the sentence of one term of suspension with consideration of the credits against Iman Sadighi; the sentence of one term of suspension without consideration of the credits against Kaveh Daneshvar; the sentence of written reprimand with inclusion in the records against Siavash Saliminejad; the sentence of written reprimand with inclusion in the records against Amir Kasra Kiani (former chairman of the unions' council); the sentence of written reprimand with inclusion in the records against Razieh Deilam–Salehi (women's secretary of the Islamic Association); and the sentence of written reprimand without inclusion in the records Moien Islamijam (institutional secretary of the Islamic Association).
2. Mehran Abbaszadeh, the secretary of the Islamic students’ association of Tarbiyat Moallem, and Amin Shoja, member of the central council of the Association; Milad Hosseini Keshtan, cultural secretary Islamic students’ association of Mazandaran were summoned to the disciplinary committee.
3. Payam Heydar Ghazvini, the secretary of the reformist Islamic organization of Emam Khomeini International University in Ghazvin and Farhad Kia Shemshaki, the secretary of the political wing of the organization were summoned to the disciplinary committee.
4. Ehsan Mansouri, an Amir Kabir University student who has spent a long time in prison, was expelled. He was also banned at examination time. Majid Tavakkoli and Ahmad Ghassaban confronted some challenges in continuing their education. Hedayat Ghazzali and Sabbah Nasri, two Kurd students who after a year and half of imprisonment were released, were not able to continue their education. The disciplinary committee issued the expulsion order for Siaman Ghiasi, a science student at Razi University in Kermanshah.
5. Student papers “Gelavazh” at Khajeh Nasir University and “Haft Noon” were banned. Two other papers, “Rozaneh” and “Gach Pazh” were banned for a year.
6. Leila Sehat and Ali Gholizadeh, Behzad Jeddi, Ebrahim Shahbazi and Shahram Shoghi were denied the right to higher education. Hamed Tofigh, an Azabayjani student activist who took part in the 1388 concour examination for the Open University, was not issued his results.
7. Amir Jahangiri, Lida Mahmoudi, Koorosh Mahmoud Kelayeh, Arvin Tahaie, Ehsan Moezi, Majid Shah Hosseini, Nazli Sabbah, Maryam Salimi, Arman Sedaghati, Farzaneh Sheikhi, Kabir Fazeli, Iman Bahramzadeh, Sina Sedaghatnejad, Ghazaleh Molla Ahmadi, Morteza Varmaziar, Yasser Torkaman, Nima G., Majid Sheikhpour, Babak Pasha Javid, Siamak Shojaie, Sajjad Veis Moradi, Payam Radaie, Azin Eskandari, Ali Asghar Sepehri, Bamdad Gholami, Bita Samimizad, Roshanak Khani, Fahimeh Ziaie, Mohsen Gerami, Youssef Rashidi, Navid Gorgin and Mohsen Ghamin were summoned.
5. Miscellaneous
1. Mehdi Arabshahi, Bahareh Hedayat, Milad Asadi, Farid Hashemi and Amin Nazari, members of the central council of Tahkim-e Vahdat; Saeed Feizollahzadeh and Majid Dorry, students deprived of education at Allameh Tabatabaie University; the mother of Nariman Mostafavi, who was in prison at the time, parents of Milad Asadi and Ardeshir Rezvan, relatives of Nariman Mostafavi who were arrested while celebrating Norouz near Evin, were released.
2. The family members of Mohammad Pourabdollah, a chemical engineering student at Tehran, in objecting to the arrest of their son celebrated Norouz near Ghezel Hesar prison.
3. Following two deaths and eight injuries among female students at Tabriz Open University during the incidents surrounding the transportation services of the university, students at the Tabriz Open University organized a demonstration.
4. S.M. a resident freshman studying communications at the college of social sciences of Tehran University jumped to his death from the fourth floor of his dormitory.
5. At entering university premises student demonstrators at Babol University were beaten.
6. Pardis Karaj students at Teachers college held an open mic and aired objections to the presence of the military forces and their threats against the student population.
7. The advisor to the former Minister of Welfare announced that undergraduate students with disability are no longer able to continue their studies in a number of departments. Due to the debt owed to the university, they were not registered in the Open University.
8. The memorial service planned for Somayyeh Jafargholi, a graduate student in computer sciences at Amir Kabir University and an employee of the centre for advanced studies in virtual reality, who was shot to death, was stopped.
9. Dr. Seyyed Ali Azmayesh, Dr. Hossein Sharifi Taraz Kouhi and Dr. Mohammad Reza Ziaie Beigdeli, three well-known law professors at Allameh Tabatabaie University retired.
10. On the 17th of Mordad 1388 the door and lock of the central office of the Islamic forum at the Ahvaz medical school, were broken. Later, the properties of this organization were confiscated. In addition, the office of the forum at the paramedical college of Mashhad university was locked and sealed.
11. The talks planned for Mehdi Karroubi, the secretary-general of the Etemad-e Melli party at the Khabar College, Akbar Aalami at the Teacher’s Association in Tabriz, Ardebil, Meshkin Shahr and Ahar; Mostafa Hajizadeh, member of the central council of Mosharekat party at the medical college and the College of Science and Technology in Arak; Rahmatollah Beigdeli, member of the central council of Etemad-e Melli party at Sabzevar University; Abdollah Ramezanzadeh, Azar Mansouri, Rahmatollah Beigdeli, Reza Norouzzadeh, Saeed Fakouri and Farshad Dolatipour, members of Mir Hossein Moussavi and Mehdi Karroubi’s campaigns, were all cancelled.
4. Women:
The accusation of acting against national security through participation in the One Million Signatures campaign, disturbing public order and defiance against police orders are used against women’s activists.
1. Hearings at the Office of the Security Prosecutor of the Revolutionary Court were held for the following: Farkhondeh Ehtesabiyan, Shahla Forouzanfar, Bahara Behravan, Leila Nazari, Delaram Ali, Sorayya Youssefi, Ali Abdi, Mohammad Shourab, Arash Nasiri Eghbali and Amir Rashidi, ten members of the One Million Signature campaign and Mothers for Peace, who were arrested on 6 Farvardin.
2. Maryam Malek, Fatemeh Masjedi and Maryam Bidgoli, members of the One Million Signatures campaign were released from prison.
3. Khadijeh Moghaddam and her spouse, Ali Akbar Khosroshahi, were summoned to court as was Fereshteh Shirazi.
4. The sentence of six months of imprisonment for Zeinab Bayazidi in place of a suspended sentence during 4 years reached her in prison and therefore, considering her previous sentence of 4 years, she will spend four years and six months in prison. Parvin Ardalan’s sentence of two suspended years of imprisonment was decreased to one. Ronak Safazadeh, a Kurdish women’s rights activist was sentenced to six years in prison and was acquitted of the charge of combatant. Nahid Keshavarz was given a suspended sentence of three years of imprisonment. Nafiseh Azad was fined for five million Rials and a suspended year in prison for the duration of three years. Parastou Alahiari was sentenced to one year in prison.
5. Court sessions were held for Nahid Keshavarz, Mahboubeh Hosseinzadeh, Sara Imaniyan, Parastou Alahiari, Nafiseh Azad, Aliyeh Matlabzadeh and Zeinab Peighambarzadeh.
6. The court session scheduled for lawyer, Nasrin Sotoudeh, was postponed.
7. Revolutionary and public courts of government employees issued a warning to the family of Zahra Baniyaghoub, as well as an order to stop further investigation into the case of other suspects accused of murder in this particular case.
8. Close to ten years after the first plan to camouflage girls schools by creating “outdoor and indoor spaces in buildings of girls schools” and “schools built based on Iranian and Islamic cultural architecture” and “enlivening of the schools” the topic has regained momentum. The Minister of Education of Ahmadinejad’s government at the time, considered “mahramizing” of girls schools as one of the necessities of the educational system in the Islamic Republic of Iran. A few days prior to the new year the head of the research and planning Department of the Ministry of Education at the time repeated the statements of the Minister of Education and emphasized the need to separate boys and girls text books. The chief officer in charge of textbooks at the Ministry referred to the early stages in the separation of texts based on gender.
9. Based on the latest decision of the high council of the Ministry of Education, the use of closed circuit TV’s in classrooms, in particular those for girls, is banned, and so it should only be used in hallways and play grounds.
10. The head of the social sciences association in Iran reported of the arrest of at least 300 to 400 girls who are on the run or living on the streets, by the police.
11. According to the deputy of the crimes unit of police force: “During the first four months of the year 280 cases of rape were opened for investigation nationwide.”
12. According to the chief of the public safety police office in Khorasan, the average age of girls on the run in the province has decreased to between 17 and 20 years of age.
13. Based on the latest findings publicized in Iranian media the minimum age for prostitution is now at 12 years of age.
14. The deputy for development and resource management of the prisons association said that at present 70 children are in prison due to the fact that their mothers are imprisoned.
15. Honor killing is not as prevalent as before in Khuzestan, but it does continue to occur.
5. Executions
1. Minors:
1. Delara Darabi was executed for committing a murder at the age of 17.
2. Habib Bagheran, accused of kidnapping and rape, was sentenced to death by the Branch Nr. 4 of the court.
3. Mohsen Eslamian, Ali Asghar Pashtar and Rouzbeh Yahyazadeh, accused of the explosion in Shiraz were publicly executed. After the execution of five individuals accused of drug dealing in Kerman, during the third week of Ordibehesht, more than 18 people were executed. The Kerman court recognized all five as drug smugglers. Previously, the media reported of the execution of eight others in Taybad in Khorassan province. During the early morning hours of Monday the 14th of Ordibehesht a 32 year old man named Saeed A. was accused of drug smuggling and executed at the Ardebil prison. On Wednesday the 16th, four others were executed at Evin prison. The first to be executed was a woman named Zeinab who was in prison since Shahrivar 1386 for the crime of murdering her husband. Younes Aghayan, an Ahl-e Hagh prisoner was executed at the Oroumiyyeh central prison. After the explosion at Amiralmomenin Mosque in Zahedan, five individuals were executed. Sistan and Balouchestan court announced that Abdolhamid Rigi and Reza Qalandarzehi were condemned to death on charges of combating through membership in a terrorist group headed by Abdolmalek Rigi. Three others named Haji Nourizehi, son of Esmail, Gholam Rassoul Shahouzehi son of Aghavan and Zabihollah Narouie son of Rassoul were executed near Amiralmomenin Mosque where an explosion took place. Shouresh Mehdikhani was also executed and therefore all thirteen individuals who were condemned to death for their membership in Jondollah group were put to death except for Abdolhamid Rigi, the brother of Abdolmalek, the leader of the group, whose execution has been delayed for a few days.
4. By refusing to allow lawyer Abdolfattah Soltani to meet and arrange representation with Roozbeh Yahyazadeh, one of the three accused of involvement in the Shiraz explosion and condemned to death, Branch Nr. 36 of the Appeals Court in Tehran endorsed the verdict issued by Branch Nr. 15 of the Islamic Revolutionary Court. The death sentence was then forwarded for enforcement and was carried out.
5. The sentence of stoning of a young couple named Rahim Mohammadi and Kobra Babaie was approved at Tabriz prison.
6. After changing the sentence of stoning, Afsaneh Rahmani was executed.
7. The public and revolutionary prosecutors of Tehran issued a death sentence for the chief officer of Shafagh and Negin Gharb property developing companies, based on the charge of disturbing the national economic system and the housing market.
6. Non-Muslims
1. Maryam Rostampour and Marzieh Amirizadeh Esmailabad, two young Christian women, were arrested.
2. Haleh Houshmandi and Farham Massoumi, two Baha’is residing in Shiraz, and Vesal Youssefi, Payam Youssefi and Anvar Moslemi, three of the Sari Baha’is were arrested.
3. Sahba Rezvani, a Baha’i resident in Semnan who was sentenced to three years in prison was transferred to Evin prison.
4. According to the Baha’i International News Service at the start of the 1388-1389 academic years, some Baha’i students were refused admission or required to give a written commitment. For instance, Hasti Fallah is a senior who was expelled.
5. Accusations against Baha’is, such as espionage for foreign powers or incestuous marriages threaten the mental health of Baha’i students.
6. The trial of the seven Baha’is held in Evin was postponed.
7. The Baha’i cemetery and several businesses in Semnan were attacked and destroyed by unknown individuals.
8. Zabihollah Raoufi, accused of teaching and spreading the Baha’i Faith, was given a suspended sentence of one year in prison in Bonab.
9. Baydokht dervishes were summoned to Gonabad.

2. Economic, social, and cultural rights
Since the government of Iran has signed the [1966] International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), and in accordance to the set of commitments that it has accepted, it has internal and international responsibility towards the Iranian people, as well as the rest of the world, to take efforts in providing true equality and general public welfare for [its] people. In spite of this, during the first six months of the year 1388, few, if any, areas of the lives of the Iranian people, be it economic, social, and cultural; present a hopeful indication in regards with this matter. As Mohammad Nahavandian, the president of the Iran Chamber of Commerce, Industry, and Mines, upon mentioning that Iran's economic recession is serious, said: "About 50 percent of industrial and manufacturing companies have closed down in recent years. Those surviving are operating on average at less than 30 percent of their official capacity, and this means that we are facing shortages in the area of industry and human resources." This has been revealed at a time when Mohammad Jahromi, the Minister of Labor and Social Affairs at the time, as well as Iran's National Center of Statistics, indicated that the rate of unemployment in Iran had reached 12.5 percent. Also, the managing director of the Committee to Combat Narcotics has mentioned that there are one million and two hundred thousand drug addicts in Iran, and that the average age of drug addicts is 32 years old.

1. Teachers:

The situation of teachers throughout the first half of 1388 up to this point, which is concomitant with the start of the new academic year and Teacher’s Day, indicates pressures on teachers’ rights activists in different cities of Iran.

1. Arrests:
1. Jafar Ebrahimi, member of the Iranian Teachers’ Association (Tehran) and five other teachers in Tehran including Rassoul Bodaghi, who had gathered in front of the Ministry of Education, were arrested. Ali Akbar Baghani, Alireza Javadi, Mahmoud Beheshti Langeroudi, Mahmoud Dehghan Azad, Esmail Abdi, Mahdiyeh Behlouli, Khatoun Badpar, Mojtaba Ghoreishiyan, Abbas Moarefi, Mohammad Nouri, Javadpour and Niknejad, 12 members of the Iranian Teacher’s Association who were arrested at the home of its secretary general, were released after a day in detention.
2. Sentencing
1. Ali Poursoleiman, member of the central Teacher’s Association was sentenced to 35 lashes and a year of exile to Eslamshahr.
3. Miscellaneous
1. Some of the licensed teachers gathered together in front of the Islamic Parliament building. They protested the government's lack of will to determine and clarify the plan for the employment of licensed teachers, and instructors of the literacy movement, by the Ministry of Education. The teachers had come from Lorestan and Kermanshah provinces.
2. Political leaders of the province cancelled plans by the Kordestan chapter of the Teachers’ Association to celebrate Teachers’ Day.
3. The deputy chief of the literacy movement organization announced that due to shortage of funds, a million individuals would be deprived of participating in literacy classes.
2. Laborers and farmers
Non-payment of wages is one of the most important problems facing the workers' community of Iran in the year 1388. This caused some protests and strikes. On the other hand, due to the economic recession and uncontrolled level of imports some of the factories were closed and their workers were laid off. The number of workers laid off by the Iron works of Tractor Industry, the Match-Manufacturing Factory of Tabriz, the Industrial Conglomerate of Northwest, the Naghsh-e Jahan Company, and a few other industrial and manufacturing units [firms], was so high that it brought anxiety to the representatives of the Islamic parliament. On the other hand, white contracts, temporary employment contracts, employment with little wages, working in the mines with the least equipment, working without any form of social security insurance, and more than eight hours [per day], and deprivation from benefits that workers all over the world have been benefitting from for years, is a reality facing the workers in Iran. In addition to the problem of making a living, the workers' community of Iran is experiencing its unique issues. The lack of job security, dim prospects, poor occupational health and safety standards at work place, and the indifference of some of the authorities towards these issues, remains as the main concerns of these workers. Farmers have been facing similar problems as well, to the point that investment in the agricultural sector dropped by 4.8%. Some of the challenges faced by workers and farmers that have been reported to the Centre are as follows:
1. Arrests:
1. Labour Day was a difficult day for laborers in Iran. Rights activists who at the invitation of committees and Iranian Laborers Union gathered at Laleh Park in Tehran in order to announce their demands were confronted with the authorities. Alireza Saghafi, Mohsen Saghafi, Kaveh Mozaffari, Jafar Azimzadeh, Saeed Youzi, Mehdi Shandiz, Ghulamreza Khani, Homa Azhdarnia Asgari, Nikzad Zanganeh, Poorya Porsetareh, Taha Valizadeh, Maryam Haj Mohsen, Parvaneh Ghassemian, Fatemeh Shahnazari, Sharifeh Mohammad Faraji, Behrooz Khabbaz, Zaniar Ahmadi, Mohammad Ashrafi, Saeed Moghaddam, Massoud Loghman, Amir Yaghoubali, Homayoun Jaberi and Mansour Hayat Gheibi were arrested during the Labour Day events. After the arrest of her spouse, Kaveh Mozaffari, Jelveh Javaheri was also arrested.
2. Hossein Akbari, Sattar Amini, Mohammad Gilani, Abdollah Vatankhah, Hassan Shafa, Hamid Sharafi, Aziz Yari, Mostafa Hatami, Nasser Ebrahimi, Jamshid Rajabi, Davoud Mirzaie, Aziz Mohammadi, Nabi Maroufi, Asdollah Eghbali, Nodehi and eight members of the Mechanics and Metal smiths Cooperative who had taken part in the coop meeting of Mehr Complex, were arrested.
3. Ali Nejati, the president of the board of directors of the Haft Tappeh sugar cane workers’ union, was released on bail.
2. Judgments
1. Jalil Ahmadi, Fereydoun Nikfar, Ali Nejati, Ghorban Alipour and Mohammad Heydari Mehr, the five accused in the case of strike by the Haft Tappeh sugar cane factory, were sentenced to one year in prison. In this sentence, six months of the prison term for Jalil Ahmadi, Fereydoun Nikoufar, Ali Nejati and Ghorban Alipour and eight months of the term for Mohammad Heydari Mehr have been suspended for five years. They are also banned from participation in election and other activities by the workers’ union.
2. Shiva Sobhani, Faegh Keykhosravi and Mansour Karimiyan, workers’ rights activists who were arrested on Labor Day, were sentenced to six months in prison and 40 lashes.
3. Miscellaneous:
1. Reza Dehghan, member of the painters’ union, was summoned to the revolutionary court. Ali Nejati and Rahim Beshaghi, members of the sugar cane factory workers of Haft Tappeh were also summoned to the revolutionary court.
2. A number of former employees of the Department of Technical and Professional Education in Tehran protested their expulsion in front of the central offices of the Department.
3. In protest to the lack or irregular pension payments, the retired employees of the Airline of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Homa) arranged a demonstration in front of the Iran Air management building.
4. Protesting the failed promises of Ahmadinejad during his tour of the province regarding return to work, twenty-eight employees of Sadra factory in Boushehr demonstrated in front of the Majles.
5. In objection to failed claims, a number of employees of the Khouzestan pipe factory demonstrated in front of the provincial government buildings and insisted the authorities respond to their demands.
6. A group of workers at Iranit Factory in Tehran held a demonstration at the factory and demanded their payments.
7. A number of employees of the Khouzestan pipe factory held a demonstration in front of the shareholders’ office. In addition, workers of the municipal government of Khouzestan held a protest in front of the provincial authorities building.
8. In the name of restructuring, a number of workers at Alborz Thread Factory were fired.
9. In a letter, some of the workers of Iran-Khodro, demanded "reducing job stress by employing a serious workforce, the return to employment of all of the laid-off workers of temporary employment agencies, The acquittal of the Kar-Amad publication and the return to employment of its employees, the official hiring of the workers and the cancellation of temporary contracts, the prevention of the expansion of temporary employment agencies and the transfer of their workers to the company itself, the dismissal of security from production lines and their prevention from interfering with the personal affairs of the workers, the freedom of workers' unions and conducting of the workers' elections as soon as possible, the cancellation of mandatory overtime work and removal of the ceiling on regular overtime work, an increase in the accord rights (profit-sharing rights), increase in wages commensurate to the rise in prices throughout the country, setting in motion the plan for the classification of occupations, setting in motion workers' retirement plan, and removal of the ceiling on the payment of yearly bonuses.
10. The private transportation contractor, Saba Tarabar Sabz Company (service provider for the Tabriz-Tehran-Mashhad train), including their one and three month contracts was subjected to increased pressure.
11. A number of contract workers at Saipa Automotive Corporation held a demonstration in front of the factory in protest to their failure in implementing Ahmadinejad’s orders to improve their conditions.
12. A group of laborers at the Chrome Chemical Factory in Sari held a demonstration in front of the provincial government buildings in Mazandaran due to failure on the part of their employer to pay their monthly salary for the year, as well as their yearly bonus and five years’ worth of pension payments.
13. Fanar Production Company failed to pay its workers’ salaries.
14. Automotive painters and body repairer held a demonstration in front of the Kerman provincial government buildings.
15. Laborers at Dena Tire Factory decided to go on strike.
16. Some of the retired workers of Pars-e Ghou vegetable oil factory gathered in front of their offices and objected to the managements’ failure in paying their productivity bonuses.
17. The former employees of Neda Company held a demonstration in front of the Islamic Propagation Organization and demanded their payments from two years earlier.
18. The workers of Alborz Chinet Company demonstrated in front of provincial government buildings of Ghazvin.
19. One hundred and fourteen representatives of Internet providers demonstrated in front of Esfahan provincial government buildings.
20. Haft Tappeh employees held a protest at the factory.
21. Workers of the Kashan Spinning and Weaving Company are owed 22 months of salary.
22. A member of the executive committee of the Islamic Councils Coordination Centre of the old Karaj road region reported of a four-month delay in salary payments for the workers of Metal Industries Company Nr. 1.
23. Sandan Company in Iran, Sepehr Electric, Alborz Packaging, Iran Zak, Machine Metals and Pit Metals are among the companies that have experienced restructuring.
24. In objection to missed salary payments and delayed yearly bonuses, workers of Pars Wagon Company in Arak went on a hunger strike.
25. As a result of a decrease in the number of local and international orders for rugs and mats and the current recession in the market, more than half of the 25,000 rug weavers in Kerman are unemployed.
26. Textile factory employees held a rally at the buildings of the Esfahan provincial government.
27. Employees of the Kamyab Sugar cube Factory (pvt) protested against their unpaid salaries.
28. Protesting the court verdict in the case of the executive board of Sobat Brick Factory, a number of employees and their families held a sit in.
29. Mohammad Reza Khabbaz, the communications officer of the economic commission of the parliament reported that the operation of more than 40% of factories in the country have come to a halt.
30. The director of Baharestan industrial park said that due to financial difficulties, several factories are shut down and many workers are unemployed.
31. The governor of Sirjan stated several stone factories are closed down.
32. The executive secretary of the Workers’ Confederation in Ghazin province announced that over the past year the pension of 90 retired employees of Poushineh factory has not been paid. He added that 80 other employees who have retired have not received their productivity bonuses have not been paid. It is also two months that the employees’ monthly salaries have gone unpaid. He also stated that for over three months now 280 workers at the Pars rug company have not been paid.
33. The deputy chair of the economic commission of the parliament said: rice farmers are left with approximately 200,000 tons of unsold rice out of last year’s harvest.
34. A shortage of liquidity is the cause of recession and decline for cotton farmers during this harvest season.
35. The secretary-general of the National Nurses’ Union considers nursing tariff as one of the main demands of the nurses. This was first introduced five years ago and was approved by the parliament two years ago, however, there has been no improvement in the situation of the nurses.
36. The speaker of the Ministry of Welfare and Social Assistance pointed to an increased rate of 400% in benefit payments for those covered by various support services of the Ministry. Currently the disability benefit payments are 32,000 toumans, which according to the director of the Association for the Disabled, is paid on a bi-monthly basis and does not in any way cover the high costs of their rehabilitation.
37. Some of the employees of the Martyrs and Veterans Foundation held a demonstration in front of their office building to protest the verdict issued by the high administrative court ordering their benefit cut.
38. Based on an announcement by the director of the Department of Welfare in Tehran there are five thousand street children and child laborers.
3. Cultural heritage and the environment
1. The Ministry of Education in Ramhormoz began the process of leveling the “Seyyed Mohammad Dolatmand” Ashkani and Sasani hills. This land was allocated to the Ministry as an endowment.
2. The planned Esfahan metro line stations can result in damage and destruction at Hasht Behesht, Boland Mini-market, Chahar Bagh School, and 33 pol.
3. The Supreme Audit Court of Iran opposed the Ministry of Roads and Transport in its report and insisted on the Talab Anzali bypass.
4. The oldest Iranian clinic, located in Abyaneh, was destroyed.
5. While the Ministry of Energy plans to desalinate water from Khazar Sea, the Director of the National Centre for Khazar Marine Studies and Research announced that the pollution in Khazar has reached a critical point.
6. The eighth mine victim of the year was killed in a region declared mine-free by Irmak, Iran’s demining organization. Four explosions in Sardasht, two in Saqqez and two in Oshonouyeh happened while the Head of the Executive Council of De-mining in Iran declared Western Azarbayjan and Kurdestan as mine-free.
7. Local authorities paved over a seven-kilometer long path through Damavand Mountain. At 5671, Damavand is one of the highest peaks in the world.
8. Following the death of a leopard in Izeh, Khouzestan, at the hand of security forces, the natural environment and biodiversity Deputy of the Environmental Protection Agency announced their plans to file a complaint. Furthermore, a lion at the Dezfoul Zoo was starved to death.
9. A leak in the Serkan-Malkouh oil line resulted in an oil spill in the Kashkan River.
10. Wall drawings in Dousheh cave near Lorestan, which dates back to prehistoric times were destroyed.
11. Waste from Tonkabon was dumped in a forest.
12. Gandoman wetlands burnt in a fire.
13. Reports indicate oil spills and pollution from Tehran Oil Refinery in nearby villages and water wells.
14. A large percentage of Iran’s ocean pipelines are decaying. In addition, city sewage, ship traffic and ballast water released into the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea, are the main contributors to sea pollution in Iran.
15. Seventy million tons of accumulated sediment, forty million of which is the result of industrial waste, has caused a 5/8 decrease in the depth of Anzali wetlands for less than 2 meters. It has also caused an increase in growth of Azola, disruption in oxygen conversion, death and destruction of sea creatures. Furthermore, the road built nearby will result in the eventual and total destruction of the wetlands.
16. A fire in the Gondamon Wetlands in Boroujen destroyed some 80 centimeters of peat soil.
17. The Baharestan organ was damaged.
18. Chestnut forests in Marivan burnt down.
19. The oil pipelines in north of Shadgan wetlands poses a threat to the natural environment.
20. Lark dam dried up and as a result the fish in bodies of water in Shahr-e Kurd died.



Conclusion

Regardless of the insurmountable obstacles set to stop its activities, the Defenders of Human Rights Centre declares its commitment to upholding the fundamental rights, worth and dignity of individuals. It also calls on the body of lawmakers, administrators and superiors to implement laws and carry out their duties in accordance with the Constitution and other documents of relevance to human rights. Furthermore, it reminds them that national interest and the progress of the country are dependent on the rule of law and preservation of the fundamental freedom and rights of its citizens. Accordingly, the Defenders of Human Rights Centre objects to the recent wave of repression, in particular after the tenth presidential elections, against citizens, and political and civil rights activists. The Centre calls for effective measures to stop violation of rights of all citizens and an end to the tension between civilians, in particular political, cultural and civil rights activists, and the authorities.

The Centre considers the abuse of the rights of the people, as outlined in the third chapter of the Constitution, such as Article 27, not only a blatant violation of human rights but also as intentional disregard for the civil laws of the land. Therefore, we demand that responsible authorities observe the political and civil rights of Iranian citizens, including the right to freedom of expression, and assembly and association. In addition, we ask that judicial, security and police authorities observe due process of law and immediately release all ideological and political prisoners.3

Defenders of Human Rights Centre

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